EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR NONVERBAL CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS
Impairments in language and communication are one of the core deficits characterised in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It has a close relationship to impairments in socialisation and leads to a lot of difficulties for children with ASD. This paper has reviewed effective intervention strategies to facilitate language and communication for nonverbal children with ASD in contemporary literature. Five main themes emerged from the literature, including the use of augmentative and alternative communication system, organising physical environment, modifying social environment, using visual cued instructions, and setting up collaboration among parents, teachers and professionals. These suggestions are useful for families and educators in teaching this special group of children.
Bambara, L. M., & Kern, L, Individualized support for students with problem behaviors, NT: Guilford Press, New York, 2005.
Barbera, M. L. & Rasmussen, T., The verbal behaviour approach – how to teach children with autism and related disorders, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London and Philadelphia, 2007.
Chawarska, K., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. R. (Eds), Autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers – diagnosis, assessment, and treatment, The Guilford Press, New York and London, 2008.
Delano, M., & Snell, M. E., The effects of social stories on the social engagement of children with autism, Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2006, 29-42.
Dodd, S., Understanding autism, Elsevier, NSW, 2005.
Janzen, J. E., Understanding the nature of autism: a guide to the autism spectrum disorder, PsychCorp, Harcourt, Texas, 2003.
Kuder, S. J., Teaching children with language and communication disabilities, Pearson, Boston, 2008.
McCormick, L., Loeb, D. F., & Schiefelbusch, R. L., Supporting children with communication difficulties in inclusive settings (2nd ed.), Pearson, Boston, 2003.
Mesibov, G. B., & Shea, V., Structured teaching and environmental supports, In K. D. Buron & P. Wolfberg, Learners on the autism spectrum: preparing highly qualified educators (pp. 115-138), Autism Asperger Publishing, Kansas, 2008.
Mirenda, P., Toward functional augmentative and alternative communication for students with autism: Manual signs, graphic symbols, and voice output communication aids. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2003, 203-216.
Mirenda, P. & Iacono, T. (Eds.), Autism Spectrum Disorder and AAC. Paulh Brookes, Baltimore, USA, 2009.
Potter, C. & Whittaker, C., Enabling communication in children with autism, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London and Philadenphia, 2001.
Prelock, P. A., Autism spectrum disorders – issues in assessment and intervention, Proed, Texas, 2006.
Quill, K. A., Teaching children with autism strategies to enhance communication and socialization. Delmar Publishers, New York, 1995.
Quill, K. A., Do-watch-listen-say Social and communication intervention for children with autism, Paulh Brookses, Maryland, 2000.
Quirmbach, L. M., Lincoln, A. J., Feinberg-Gizzo, M. J., Ingersoll, B. R., & Andrews, S. M., Social stories: mechanisms of effectiveness in increasing game play skills in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders using a pretest posttest repeated measures randomized control group design, Journal of Autism Developemental Disorders, Vol. 39, 2009, 299-321.
Sansosti, F. J. & Powell-Smith, K. A., Using Computer-Presented Social Stories and Video Models to Increase the Social Communication Skills of Children With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2008, 162-178.
Scott, J., Clark, C., & Brady, M. P., Student with autism – characteristics and instruction programming, Singular Publishing Group, California, 2000.
Taylor, R. L., Smiley, L. R., & Richards, S. B., Exceptional students – Preparing teacher for the 21st century, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, New York, 2009.
The Center for AAC and Autism, Why use a voice output communication device? Retrieved from http://www.aacandautism.com/why-aac/why-use-aac, 2009.
Vaughn, S., Bos, C. S., Schumm, J. S., Teaching students who are exceptional, diverse, and at risk in the general education classroom (5th ed.), Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2011.
Williams, C. & Wright, B., How to live with Autism and Asperger Syndrome – Practical strategies for parents and professionals, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London and Philadelphia, 2004.
Willis, C., Teaching young children with autism spectrum disorder, Gryphon House Inc., Beltsville 2006.