Abstract: While mangrove forests support large surrounding populations and diverse economic activities, mangrove areas in Central Vietnam are decreasing. This study, thereforce, aims to understand the current status and threats facing mangrove conservation and development. A survey of 52 respondents was conducted in Duy Xuyen district, the largest area of mangrove forests of Quang Nam province. The results show that 17 mangrove species belong to 11 families, in which 8 significant species and 9 minor species were found in this site. The distribution of species was uneven with dominated by Nipah palms (Nypafruticans Wurmb). Although the mangrove species had several useful functions including protection against wind, wave break and serving tourism development, mangrove areas have been decreasing from 26.39ha to 18.22ha during period of 1999-2018. In which, 67.3% of respondents argued that the conversion of mangroves to aquaculture is one of the main causes of mangrove loss. The study also provided some suggestions related to a long-term development strategy for both government and local community, especially who are directly involving in the mangrove for their livelihoods.
Keywords: Central Vietnam, development strategy, mangrove forests, livelihoods
- FAO., (2007), Mangrove of Asia 1980–2005: Country Reports.
- I. Nagelkerken et al., (2008), The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna: A review, Aquat. Bot., 89(2), 155–185.
- N. H. Tri, W. N. Adger, and P. M. Kelly., (1998), Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: The example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam, Glob. Environ. Chang., 8(1), 49–61.
- P. J. Mumby et al., (2004), Receiver functions in the western United States, with implications for upper mantle structure and dynamics, J. Nat., 427, 533–536.
- B. B. Walters et al., (2008), Ethnobiology, socio-economics and management of mangrove forests: A review, Aquat. Bot., 89(2), 220–236.
- P. M. Thu and J. Populus, (2007), Status and changes of mangrove forest in Mekong Delta: A Case study in Tra Vinh, Vietnam, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 71(1–2), 98–109.
- I. Valiela, J. L. Bowen, and J. K. York, (2006), Mangrove Forests: One of the World’s Threatened Major Tropical Environments, Bioscience, 51(10), 807–815.
- I. Faridah-Hanum, A. Latiff, K. R. Hakeem, and M. Ozturk, (2014), Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia: Status, Challenges and Management Strategies, Springer.
- S. Hawkins et al., (2010), Roots in the Water: Legal Frameworks for Mangrove PES in Vietnam. From the Katoomba Group's Legal Initiative Country Study Series. Forest Trends: Washington, DC.
- P. N. Hong and H. San, Mangrove of Vietnam, (1993), The IUCN Wetlands programme.
- R. K. Turner, W. N. Adger, and I. Lorenzoni, (1998), Towards integrated modelling and analysis in coastal zones: principles and practice, Land-ocean Interact. Coast. Zo., 11(122).
- T. D. Truong and L. H. Do, (2018), Mangrove forests and aquaculture in the Mekong river delta, Land use policy, 73, 20–28.
- T. T. Van et al., (2014), Changes in mangrove vegetation area and character in a war and land-use change affected region of Vietnam (Mui Ca Mau) over six decades, Acta Oecologica, 1–11.
- T. Q. Bao, (2011), Effect of mangrove forest structures on wave attenuation in coastal Vietnam, Oceanologia, 53 (3), 807–818.
- D. R. Cahoon et al., (2018), Mass Tree Mortality Leads to Mangrove Peat Collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane Mitch Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article: Mass tree mortality leads to mangrove peat collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane M,” J. Ecol., 91(6), 1093–1105.
- S. L. J. Smith, (1995), The tourism product, Ann. Tour. Res., 21(3), 582–595.
- C. D. Field, (1995), Impact of Climate Change on Mangroves, Hydrobiologia, 295, 75–81.
- D. S. Do and V. T. Phuong, (2005), National Action Plan for Protection and Development of Vietnam’s Mangrove Forests Till 2015.
- P. Nehru and P. Balasubramanian, (2018), Mangrove species diversity and composition in the successional habitats of Nicobar Islands, India: A post-tsunami and subsidence scenario, For. Ecol. Manage., 427, 70–77.
- V. T. H. Thong, (2011), Research on current status and solutions for conservation and recovery of wetland flora in Duy Xuyen district, Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Master Thesis. Department of Ecology, Da Nang University.
- J. Brohman, (1996), New directions in tourism for third world development, Ann. Tour. Res., 23 (I), 48–70.
- VNFOREST, Vietnam Administration of Forestry, Retrieved from http://tongcuclamnghiep.gov. vn/. 2015. (in Vietnamese).
- Hong Phan Nguyen and Hoang Thi San, (1993), Mangroves of Vietnam, The IUCN Wetlands programme.
- VEPA (Vietnam Environment Protection Agency), (2005), Overview of wetlands status in Vietnam following 15 years of Ramsar Convention implementation, VEPA, Hanoi, 72 pp.
- Linh, N. H. K., Ha, T. N., & Tan, N. Q., (2018), Study on the status and effectiveness of coastal wetland utilization in Duy Xuyen district, Quang Nam province. Journal of Vietnamese Environment, 9(1), 11–17. https://doi.org/10.13141/jve.vol9.no1.pp11-17.
- Duy Xuyen district’s statistic report, 2016–2018.