This research investigates the key motivating factors of Thai employees at international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The results show that both intrinsic (x̅=3.02) and extrinsic motivation (x̅=2.50) affect these employees (on a Likert scale of 1 to 4). Importantly, the charitable purpose of the NGO has a clear bearing on the motivation of employees, as reported by 94.7% of respondents. The respondents’ preferences for increasing knowledge (x̅=3.57), enjoyment (x̅=3.52), gaining new experience (x̅=3.20), and clarity in the workplace (x̅=3.51) are demonstrated to be deeply rooted in Thai culture, as is their aversion for competition (x̅=1.79), complex problem solving (x̅=2.62), and individual credit (x̅=1.56). Suggested areas of focus for NGO management are outlined in a 15-point recommendation list.
Keywords: Non-Governmental Organization, Employee Motivation, Chiang Mai, Thailand
- Alderfer, C. P., (1969), An empirical test of a new theory of human needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4(2), 142-175.
- Amabile, T. M., Hill, K. G., Hennessey, B. A., & Tighe, E. M., (1994), The work preference inventory: Assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(5), 950-967.
- Baines S. & Emerson, E., (2010), Health Inequalities and People with Learning Disabilities in the UK: 2010. Durham: Improving Health & Lives: Learning Disabilities Observatory.
- Baxter, R., (2015), Generating value by motivating individuals. Retrieved September 12, 2015, from https://vgpblog.wordpress.com/2015/05/22/generating-value-by-motivating-individuals/
- Buavaraporn, N. & Mo, G., (2014), The study of front-line employee motivation in retailing business: empirical evidence from department stores in Bangkok. UTCC International Journal of Business and Economics, 16(1), 119-133.
- Caeiro, J., (2008), Economia social: Conceitos, fundamentos e tipologia. Revista Katálysis, 11(1), 61-72.
- Carraher, S. M., Gibson, J. W., & Buckley, M. R., (2006), Compensation satisfaction in the Baltics and the USA. Baltic Journal of Management, 1(1), 7-23.
- Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., & Stukas, A., (1996), Volunteers’ motivations: Findings from a national survey. Retrieved September 12, 2015, from http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/25/4/485
- Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., & Miene, P., (1998), Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1516-1530.
- Danzig, J., (2011), Motivation and employee engagement in Thailand. Retrieved September 12, 2015 from http://www.talent-technologies.com/new/2011/01/motivation-thailand/
- De Cooman, R., Gieter, S. D., Pepermans, R., & Jegers, M., (2011), A cross-sector comparison of motivation-related concepts in for-profit and not-for-profit service organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40(2), 296-317.
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M., (2008), Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49(3), 182-185.
- Herzberg, F., (1968), One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review 46(1), 53–62.
- Hofstede, G. H., (2001), Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Hofstede Center, (n.d.), Retrieved January 12, 2016 from http://geert-hofstede.com/thailand.html
- Kelly, L., Whatley, A., & Worthley, R., (1990), Self-appraisal, life goals, and national culture: An asian-western comparison. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 7(2), 41-58.
- Komin, S., (1990), Culture and work-related values in Thai organizations. International Journal of Psychology, 25(3-6), 681-704.
- Lawler, E.E., III, (2003), Reward practices and performance management system effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 32(4), 396.
- Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P., (2004), What should we do about motivation theory? Six recommendations for the twenty-first century. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 388-403.
- Malhotra, J., (2011), Cultural variables. Retrieved December 10, 2015, from http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/69363-Cultural-variables.aspx
- Maslow, A. H., (1943), A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396.
- McClelland, D. C., (1988), Human motivation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Meyer, J. P., & Gagné, M., (2008), Employee engagement from a self-determination theory perspective. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 60-62.
- Pelled, L H., & Hill, K. D., (1997), Employee work values and organizational attachment in North Mexican maquiladoras. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(4), 495-505.
- Pinder, C. C., (1998), Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
- Rattanjee, V., (2005), Wake-up call for Thailand. Gallup Business Journal. Retrieved September 12, 2015 from http://www.gallup.com/businessjournal/16285/wakeup-call-thailand-inc.aspx
- Schepers, C., De Gieter, S., Pepermans, R., Du Bois, C., Caers, R., & Jegers, M, (2005), How are people of the non-profit sector motivated? A research need. Nonprofit management & Leadership, 16, 191-208.
- Viwatronakit, T. (2016, April 10). Personal interview.