Influence of nitrogen level and plant density on growth parameters and economic efficiency of sunflower cultured in Thua Thien Hue province


cut flower
diseases and insects
plant spacing
nitrogen fertilizer
vase life

How to Cite

Truong HTH, Phan TT. Influence of nitrogen level and plant density on growth parameters and economic efficiency of sunflower cultured in Thua Thien Hue province. hueuni-jns [Internet]. 2022Jun.30 [cited 2022Dec.7];131(1B):19-28. Available from:


Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivation is gaining popularity among Vietnamese farmers. Two separate experiments were conducted from January to April 2018 in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Four levels of each factor were included in the experiments: 0, 20, 40, and 60 kg/ha for nitrogen and 11, 13, 16, and 20 plants/m2 for the density. The nitrogen fertilizer (up to 60 kg/ha) substantially affects the leaf area, diameters of stem plant, receptacle and flower head, and cut flower vase life. Low plant density works well on plant height, leaf number, width and length at the flowering stage, with the largest head diameter (17.2 cm) at the 13 plants/m2 density. Based on the results of both growth ability and economic efficiency, we suggested applying N at 60 kg/ha and planting at 16 plants/m2 density for growing F1 cut sunflowers in Thua Thien Hue province.


  1. Steer BT, Coaldrake PD, Pearson CJ, Canty CP. Effects of nitrogen supply and population density on plant development and yield components of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). F Crop Res. 1986;13(C):99-115.
  2. Zubillaga MM, Aristi JP, Lavado RS. Effect of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilization on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) nitrogen uptake and yield. J Agronomy & Crop Science. 2002;188:267-274.
  3. Munir MA, Malik MA, Saleem MF. Impact of integration of crop manuring and nitrogen application on growth, yield and quality of spring planted sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.). Pakistan J Bot. 2007;39(2):441-9.
  4. Scott P. Physiology and behavior of plants. Singapore: John Wiley and Sons; 2008. Chapter 5, Mineral nutrition of plants; p. 75-87.
  5. Hussain M, Farooq M, Shehzad M, Khan MB, Wahid A, Shabir G. Evaluating the performance of elite sunflower hybrids under saline conditions. Int J Agric Biol. 2012;14(1):131-5.
  6. Robinson RG, Ford JH, Lueschen WE, Rabas DL, Smith LJ, Warnes DD, et al. Response of sunflower to plant population. Agron J. 1980;72(6):869-71.
  7. Dufault RJ, Phillip TL, Kelly JW. Nitrogen and potassium fertility and plant populations influence field production of gerbera. HortScience. 1990;25(12):1599-602.
  8. Carvalho SMP, Heuvelink E, Van Kooten O. Effect of light intensity, plant density, and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum. Acta Hortic. 2002;593:33-8.
  9. Bredmose NB. Growth, flowering, and postharvest performance of single-stemmed rose (Rosa hybrida L.) plants in response to light quantum integral and plant population density. J Amer Soc Hort Sci. 1998;123:569-76.
  10. Diepenbrock W, Long M, Feil B. Yield and quality of sunflower as affected by row orientation, row spacing and plant density. Bodenkultur. 2001;52(1):29-36.
  11. Olowe VI, Adebimpe OA, Obadiahi TE. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L .) to nitrogen and phosphorus application in the forest-savanna transition zone of south west. Niger J Hort Sci. 2005;10:23-9.
  12. Chapin FS, Walter CHS, Clarkson DT. Growth response of barley and tomato to nitrogen stress and its control by abscisic acid, water relations and photosynthesis. Planta. 1988;173(3):352-66.
  13. Palmer SJ, Berridge DM, Mcdonald AJS, Davies WJ. Control of leaf expansion in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by nitrogen nutrition. 1996;47(296):359-368.
  14. Yañez P, Ohno H, Ohkawa K. Photoperiodic response and vase life of ornamental sunflower cultivars. Horttechnology. 2005;15(2):386-90.
  15. Mensuali-Sodi A, Ferrante A. Physiological changes during postharvest life of cut sunflowers. Acta Hortic. 2005;669:219-24.
  16. Holt NW and Campbell SJ. Effect of plant density on the agronomic performance of sunflower on dryland. Can J Plant Sci. 1984;64:599-605.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Array