COVID-19 has brought the global tourism industry to a standstill. In response, various tourist attraction managers adopted innovative approaches such as virtual tours (VTs) to keep their attractions firmly in the minds of potential visitors. This study determined the factors that affect a person’s decision to adopt VTs as well as intention to visit during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected from a sample of 169 respondents after they had experienced at least one of the VTs simulating Son Doong cave, Moc Chau province, or Thai Lan cities. The results show that the factors are effective in predicting users’ intention to adopt VTs and that adoption intention has a positive impact on the tendency to visit the actual site. In addition, practical implications are provided for site managers to consider when opting for VTs as a promotional tool or as an alternative product during times of crisis.
- UNWTO (2020b). World Tourism Remains at a Standstill as 100% of Countries Impose Restrictions on Travel. UNWTO 3rd report on Travel Restrictions, April 2020 (accessed July 25, 2020).
- Sigala, M. (2020). Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and Implications for Advancing and Resetting Industry and Research. Journal of Business Research, 117, 312-321.
- Ioannides, D. & Gyimóthy, S. (2020). The COVID-19 Crisis as an Opportunity for Escaping the Unsustainable Global Tourism Path. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 624-632.
- UNWTO (2020a). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer May 2020. Special Focus on the Impact of COVID-19 (accessed July 25, 2020).
- Spielmann, N. & Mantonakis, A. (2018). In Virtuo: How User-Driven Interactivity in Virtual Tours Leads to Attitude Change. Journal of Business Research, 88, 255-264.
- Barbieri, L., Bruno, F. & Muzzupappa, M. (2017). Virtual Museum System Evaluation through User Studies. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 26, 101-108.
- Mah, O., Yan, Y., Tan, J., Tan, Y., Tay, G., Chiam, D., Wang, Y., Dean, K. & Feng, C. (2019). Generating a virtual tour for the preservation of the (in)tangible cultural heritage of Tampines Chinese Temple in Singapore. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 39, 202-211.
- Hồ Xuân Hướng, Lê Nhật Hạnh & Lê Thị Hạnh Dung (2020). Vai trò của thực tế ảo trong quảng cáo du lịch: Một cách tiếp cận từ mô hình SOR. Tạp chí Nghiên cứu Kinh tế và Kinh doanh Châu Á, 31(1), 48-74.
- Davis, F., Bagozzi, R. & Warshaw, P. (1992). Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Use Computers in the Workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(14), 1111-1132.
- Lindell, M. & Perry, R. (1992). Behavioral Foundations of Community Emergency Planning. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
- Marangunić, N. & Granić, A. (2015). Technology Acceptance Model: A Literature Review from 1986 to 2013. Universal Access in the Information Society, 14(1), 81-95.
- Davis, F. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340.
- Venkatesh, V., Morris, M., Davis, G. & Davis, F. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.
- Terpstra, T. & Lindell, M. (2013). Citizens’ Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model. Environment and Behavior, 45(8), 993-1018.
- Lindell, M. & Prater, C. (2002). Risk Area Residents’ Perceptions and Adoption of Seismic Hazard Adjustments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(11), 2377-2392.
- Lindell, M. & Prater, C. (2000). Household Adoption of Seismic Hazard Adjustments: A Comparison of Residents in Two States. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 18(2), 317-338.
- Liu, Y., Ouyang, Z. & Cheng, P. (2019). Predicting Consumers’ Adoption of Electric Vehicles during the City Smog Crisis: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 64, 30-38.
- Huang, Y. C., Backman, S. J., Backman, K. F. & Moore, D. (2013). Exploring User Acceptance of 3D Virtual Worlds in Travel and Tourism Marketing. Tourism Management, 36, 490-501.
- Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B. & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: International Version. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
- Chung, N., Han, H. & Joun, Y. (2015). Tourists’ Intention to Visit a Destination: The Role of Augmented Reality (AR) Application for a Heritage Site. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 588-599.
- Tom Dieck, M. C. & Jung, T. (2018). A Theoretical Model of Mobile Augmented Reality Acceptance in Urban Heritage Tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(2), 154-174.
- Tussyadiah, I., Wang, D., Jung, T. & Tom Dieck, M. (2018). Virtual Reality, Presence, and Attitude Change: Empirical Evidence from Tourism. Tourism Management, 66, 140-154.
- Parady, G., Taniguchi, A. & Takami, K. (2020). Travel behavior changes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: Analyzing the effects of risk perception and social influence on going-out self-restriction. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 7, 1-15.
- de Bruin, W. & Bennett, D. 2020. Relationships between Initial COVID-19 Risk Perceptions and Protective Health Behaviors: A National Survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 59(2), 157-67.