Impact of technology attributes on tourists' smart tourism experience: a literature review


smart tourism technology attributes
smart tourism experiences
systematic review
Prisma method các thuộc tính của công nghệ du lịch thông minh
trải nghiệm du lịch thông minh
nghiên cứu tổng quan
phương pháp Prisma


This research provides a systematic overview of the development of smart tourism technology. The findings reveal a burgeoning research interest in this domain in developed countries; studies have explored diverse themes, including smart tourism destination research, smart tourism ecosystems, technology applications across tourism sectors, and tourist behaviour in the context of smart tourism experiences. Synthesised research emphasizes the primary attributes of smart tourism technology: information, accessibility, interactivity, personalisation, and security in enhancing tourist experiences. Key characteristics of smart tourism experiences, distinct from traditional experiences, include: aesthetics, virtual or augmented reality presence, usefulness, usability, hedonic experiences, traveller enjoyment, traveller confidence benefits, and learning ability. The statement highlights the importance of research findings in shaping future research directions, particularly in the context of smart tourism and emerging countries.


  1. Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008), Progress in Information Technology and Tourism Management: 20 Years on and 10 Years After the Internet—The State of eTourism Research. Tourism Management, 29, 609–623.
  2. Wang, X., Zhen, F., Tang, J., Shen, L., & Liu, D. (2022), Applications, Experiences, and Challenges of Smart Tourism Development in China. Journal of Urban Technology, 29(4), 101–126.
  3. Jeong, M., & Shin, H. H. (2019), Tourists' Experiences with Smart Tourism Technology at Smart Destinations and Their Behavior Intentions, Journal of Travel Research, 59(8), 1464–1477.
  4. Tyan, I., Yagüe, M.I., & Guevara-Plaza, A. (2020), Blockchain technology for smart tourism destinations, Sustainability, 12.
  5. Sustacha, I., Baños-Pino, J. F., & Del Valle, E. (2023), The role of technology in enhancing the tourism experience in smart destinations: A meta-analysis, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 30, 100817.
  6. Prayag, G., & Ryan, C. (2011), The relationship between the ‘push’and ‘pull’factors of a tourist destination: The role of nationality–an analytical qualitative research approach. Current issues in tourism, 14(2), 121–143.
  7. Pradhan, M. K., Oh, J., & Lee, H. (2018), Understanding travelers' behavior for sustainable smart tourism: A technology readiness perspective. Sustainability, 10(11), 4259.
  8. Kotis, K., Dimara, A., Angelis, S., Michailidis, P., Michailidis, I., Anagnostopoulos, C. N., Kosmatopoulos, E. (2022), Towards Optimal Planning for Green, Smart, and Semantically Enriched Cultural Tours. Smart Cities 2023, 6, 123–136.
  9. Shafiee, S., Jahanyan, S., Ghatari, A. R., & Hasanzadeh, A. (2023), Developing sustainable tourism destinations through smart technologies: A system dynamics approach. Journal of Simulation, 17(4), 477–498.
  10. Sharma, S. K., Janssen, M., Bunker, D., Dominguez-Péry, C., Singh, J. B., Dwivedi, Y. K., & Misra, S. K. (2023), Unlocking the Potential of Smart Technologies: Addressing Adoption Challenges. Information Systems Frontiers, 25(4), 1293–1298.
  11. Gretzel, U., Reino, S., Kopera, S., & Koo, C. J. J. o. T. (2015), Smart tourism challenges, 16(1), 41–47.
  12. Neuhofer, B., & Buhalis, D. (2012), Understanding and managing technology-enabled enhanced tourist experiences, Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Hospitality and Tourism Marketing & Management, Corfu, Greece.
  13. Zaman, M., Hasan, P. R., Vo-Thanh, T., Shams, R., Rahman, M., & Jasim, K. M. (2024), Adopting the metaverse in the luxury hotel business: a cost–benefit perspective, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
  14. Azis, N., Amin, M., Chan, S., & Aprilia, C. (2020), How smart tourism technologies affect tourist destination loyalty, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 11(4), 603–625.
  15. Tavitiyaman, P., Zhang, X., & Qu, H. (2023), Impact of Smart Tourism Technologies on the Overall Destination Image: Interaction Between Cultural Difference and Information Search. Tourism Review International, 27(3-4), 235–255.
  16. Chuang, C.-M. (2023), The conceptualization of smart tourism service platforms on tourist value co-creation behaviours: an integrative perspective of smart tourism services. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 10(1), 1–16.
  17. Gretzel, U., Werthner, H., Koo, C., & Lamsfus, C. (2015), Conceptual foundations for understanding smart tourism ecosystems. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 558–563.
  18. Jeong, M., & Shin, H. H. (2020), Tourists' experiences with smart tourism technology at smart destinations and their behavior intentions, Journal of Travel Research, 59(8), 1464–1477.
  19. Nieves-Pavón, S., López-Mosquera, N., & Jiménez-Naranjo, H. (2023), The factors influencing STD through SOR theory, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 75, 103533.
  20. Dorcic, J., Komsic, J., & Markovic, S. (2019), Mobile technologies and applications towards smart tourism–state of the art, Tourism Review, 74(1), 82–103.
  21. Wang, X., Li, X. R., Zhen, F., & Zhang, J. (2016), How smart is your tourist attraction?: Measuring tourist preferences of smart tourism attractions via a FCEM-AHP and IPA approach. Tourism Management, 54, 309–320.
  22. Buhalis, D. (2020), Technology in tourism-from information communication technologies to eTourism and smart tourism towards ambient intelligence tourism: a perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1), 267–272.
  23. Tribe, J., & Mkono, M. (2017), Not such smart tourism? The concept of e-lienation, Annals of Tourism Research, 66, 105-115.
  24. Vasavada, M., & Padhiyar, Y. J. (2016), Smart Tourism»: Growth for Tomorrow, Journal for Research| Volume, 1(12).
  25. Kabadayi, S., Ali, F., Choi, H., Joosten, H., & Lu, C. (2019), Smart service experience in hospitality and tourism services: A conceptualization and future research agenda. Journal of Service Management, 30(3), 326–348.
  26. Kiatkawsin, K., Sutherland, I., & Lee, S. K. (2020), Determinants of smart tourist environmentally responsible behavior using an extended norm-activation model. Sustainability, 12(12), 4934.
  27. Femenia-Serra, F., & Neuhofer, B. (2018), Smart tourism experiences: Conceptualisation, key dimensions and research agenda, Investigaciones Regionales-Journal of Regional Research, 42, 129–150.
  28. Gretzel, U., Reino, S., Kopera, S., & Koo, C. (2015), Smart tourism challenges. Journal of Tourism, 16(1), 41–47.
  29. Vargas-Sánchez, A. (2016), Exploring the concept of smart tourist destination, Enlightening Tourism, A Pathmaking Journal, 6(2), 178–196.
  30. Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2015), Smart technologies for personalized experiences: a case study in the hospitality domain, Electronic Markets, 25, 243–254.
  31. Pencarelli, T. (2020), The digital revolution in the travel and tourism industry, Information Technology & Tourism, 22(3), 455–476.
  32. Chung, N., Han, H., & Joun, Y. (2015), Tourists’ intention to visit a destination: The role of augmented reality (AR) application for a heritage site, Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 588–599.
  33. Buhalis, D. (2019), Technology in tourism-from information communication technologies to eTourism and smart tourism towards ambient intelligence tourism: a perspective article, Tourism Review, 75(1), 267–272.
  34. Rahmadian, E., Feitosa, D., & Virantina, Y. (2023), Digital twins, big data governance, and sustainable tourism, Ethics and Information Technology, 25(4), 61.
  35. Filimonau, V., Ashton, M., & Stankov, U. (2022), Virtual spaces as the future of consumption in tourism, hospitality and events, Journal of Tourism Futures.
  36. Ivanov, D. (2020), Predicting the impacts of epidemic outbreaks on global supply chains: A simulation-based analysis on the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2) case, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 136, 101922.
  37. Wang, K. H., Umar, M., Akram, R., & Caglar, E. (2021), Is technological innovation making world" Greener"? An evidence from changing growth story of China, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 165, 120516.
  38. Xin, S., & Wang, Y. (2023), Incorporating the student voice in undergraduate tourism curriculum in China, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 33, 100462.
  39. Liberato, D., Ferreira, F. A., Liberato, P., & Coentrão, R. (2022, May), Fostering Accessible Tourism: Stakeholders’ Perspective in Vila do Conde and Póvoa de Varzim, In ICTR 2022 5th International Conference on Tourism Research, Academic Conferences and publishing limited.
  40. Prihastomo, Y., Goestjahjanti, F. S., Kumoro, D. F. C., Subekhi, I., Chaeroni, N., Hermawan, A. B., & Abadiyah, S. (2022, August), Gamification for E-Tourism Based on Virtual Reality Study on Indonesia Tourism, In 2022 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS) (pp. 01–05). IEEE.
  41. Oladimeji, K. A., & Abdulkareem, A. K. (2023), Ethical leadership and employee performance in the public sector: The mediating effects of motivation and satisfaction, Journal Studi Pemerintahan, 133–148.
  42. Buhalis, D., Leung, D., & Lin, M. (2023), Metaverse as a disruptive technology revolutionising tourism management and marketing, Tourism Management, 97, 104724.
  43. Pine, B. J. & Gilmore, J. H. (1999), The experience economy: Work is theater and every business a stage, B oston: Harvard Business School Press.
  44. Pine, B. J. & Gilmore, J. H. (2011), The experience economy (Updated edition), Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  45. Ali, F., Ryu, K. & Hussain, K. (2016), Influence of experiences on memories, satisfaction and behavioral intentions: A study of creative tourism, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33(1), 85–100.
  46. Chang, S. (2018), Experience economy in the hospitality and tourism context, Tourism Management Perspectives, 27, 83–90.
  47. Koler, P., Bowen, J. and Makens, J. (2006), Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, Third Edition, Prentice Hall.
  48. Oh, H., Fiore, A. & Jeong, M. (2007), Measuring experience economy concepts: Tourism applications, Journal of Travel Research, 46, 119–132.
  49. Bùi Thị Tám, Trần Ngọc Phước, Nguyễn Hoàng Tuệ Quang (2020), Tác động của trải nghiệm du lịch đến cảm xúc và sự hài lòng của du khách–nghiên cứu trường hợp điểm đến nha trang, Tạp chí Khoa học Đại học Huế: Kinh tế và Phát triển, 129(5C), 131–149.
  50. Hennes, T. (2002), Rethinking the visitor experience: Transforming obstacle into purpose, Curator: The Museum Journal, 45(2), 109–121.
  51. Packer, J., & Ballantyne, R. (2016), Conceptualizing the visitor experience: A review of literature and development of a multifaceted model, Visitor Studies, 19(2), 128–143.
  52. Koler, P., Bowen, J. and Makens, J. (2006), Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, Third Edition, Prentice Hall.
  53. Schmitt, B. (1999), Experiential marketing. Journal of marketing management, 15(1-3), 53–67.
  54. Davis, F. D. (1985), A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology).
  55. Bogicevic, V., Yang, W., Cobanoglu, C., Bilgihan, A., & Bujisic, M. (2016), Traveler anxiety and enjoyment: The effect of airport environment on traveler's emotions, Journal of Air Transport Management, 57, 122–129.
  56. Porter, M., & Dike, A. (2023), Assessing Disruptive Innovation Research in Management: A Bibliometric Analysis, Business Education Innovation Journal VOLUME 15 NUMBER, 149.
  57. Vogel, R., & Güttel, W. H. (2013), The dynamic capability view in strategic management: A bibliometric review, International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(4), 426–446.
  58. Mongeon, P., & Paul-Hus, A. (2016), The journal coverage of Web of Science and Scopus: a comparative analysis, Scientometrics, 106(1), 213–228.
  59. Wang, D., Li, X., & Li, Y. (2013), China's "smart tourism destination" initiative: A taste of the service-dominant logic, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2(2), 59–61.
  60. No, E., & Kim, J. K. (2015), Comparing the attributes of online tourism information sources. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 564–575.
  61. Huang, C. D., Goo, J., Nam, K., & Yoo, C. W. (2017), Smart tourism technologies in travel planning: The role of exploration and exploitation, Information & Management, 54(6), 757–770.
  62. Lee, J., Lee, H., Chung, N., & Koo, C. (2017), An Integrative Model of the Pursuit of Happiness and the Role of Smart Tourism Technology: A Case of International Tourists in Seoul. In R. Schegg & B. Stangl (Eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2017 (pp. 173–186). Springer International Publishing.
  63. Um, T., & Chung, N. (2021), Does smart tourism technology matter? Lessons from three smart tourism cities in South Korea, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 26(4), 396–414.
  64. Buhalis D, A. A. (2015), Smart tourism destinations enhancing tourism experience through personalization of services. Tussyadiah I, Inversini A (eds) Information and communication technologies in tourism, Springer, 377–389.
  65. Pai, C.-K., Liu, Y., Kang, S., & Dai, A. (2020), The Role of Perceived Smart Tourism Technology Experience for Tourist Satisfaction, Happiness and Revisit Intention, Sustainability, 12(16).
  66. Lee, T. H., & Jan, F. H. (2018), Ecotourism behavior of nature-based tourists: An integrative framework, Journal of Travel Research, 57(6), 792–810.
  67. Rogers, A. G., & Leung, Y. F. (2023), More Helpful Than Hurtful? Information, Technology, and Uncertainty in Outdoor Recreation, Leisure Sciences, 45(7), 609–627.
  68. Otto, J. E., & Ritchie, J. B. J. T. m. (1996) The service experience in tourism, 17(3), 165–174.
  69. Dubé, L., Bel, J. L., & Sears, D. (2003), From customer value to engineering pleasurable experiences in real life and online, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 44(5-6), 124–130.
  70. Kim, A. K., & Brown, G. (2012), Understanding the relationships between perceived travel experiences, overall satisfaction, and destination loyalty, Anatolia, 23(3), 328–347.
  71. Neuhofer, B., & Buhalis, D. (2021), Experience design in the smart tourism destination. In Routledge Handbook of the Tourist Experience, Routledge, 616–629.
  72. Bogicevic, V., Bujisic, M., Bilgihan, A., Yang, W., & Cobanoglu, C. (2017), The impact of traveler-focused airport technology on traveler satisfaction, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 123, 351–361.
  73. Guttentag, D. A. (2010), Virtual reality: Applications and implications for tourism, Tourism management, 31(5), 637–651.
  74. Tussyadiah, I. P., Jung, T. H., & tom Dieck, M. C. (2017), Embodiment of Wearable Augmented Reality Technology in Tourism Experiences, Journal of Travel Research, 57(5), 597–611.
  75. Lee, T. H., Jan, F. H., & Huang, G. W. (2015), The influence of recreation experiences on environmentally responsible behavior: The case of Liuqiu Island, Taiwan, Journal of Sustainable tourism, 23(6), 947–967.
  76. Schmitt, U., & Hiemke, C. (1999), Effects of GABA-transporter (GAT) inhibitors on rat behaviour in open-field and elevated plus-maze, Behav Pharmacol, 10(2), 131–137.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Array